By Donald A. Norman
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Extra resources for Learning and Memory
From there it may either be reabsorbed by the cell that produced it or broken down to make waste products called metabolites. However, these important chemicals of the brain, such as serotonin and acetylcholine, are now understood to have a more general role than simply “transmitting messages” between cells, and they may spend quite a lot of time simply floating in the fluid surrounding the neurons and influencing (or modulating) the overall activity level of the brain. ” Brain-Mapping Techniques As early as the end of the eighteenth century, the brain had been closely linked with the conscious mind, having defeated the rival claims of the heart in that respect.
When the reported thought or sensation matched one previously associated by that patient with the onset of a fit, Penfield assumed that he had found an area of the brain likely to be implicated in causing the epilepsy. As a byproduct of this diagnostic work, he found himself in possession of a large amount of evidence that showed certain areas of the brain’s cortex were associated with specific kinds of thoughts or sensations or memories. As a byproduct of his diagnostic work, Penfield possessed evidence showing that certain areas of the brain’s cortex were associated with specific thoughts, sensations, or memories.
They transfer information to the brain by causing more nerve cells there to develop more action potentials. ) As visual information passes from one part of the brain to another, various elements—shape, color, or movement—are processed in different places, with new streams of information coming together at different points. In this way, the information goes through a series of stages in the brain, some of which lead to consciousness. 44 • From Light to Sight The visual information received by the ganglion cells is mostly transferred to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), part of the structure known as the thalamus and a kind of junction box in the brain.
Learning and Memory by Donald A. Norman