By J. Thorsten Duser
Covering the years 1971-89 the ebook offers the 1st enormous research of the large foreign growth of jap banks. it's for that reason a useful resource of knowledge for lecturers and businessmen alike. the focal point on their presence in Europe and the evaluation of implications after 1992 is a standpoint by no means utilized ahead of. Two-and-a-half years of analysis in London, Frankfurt and Tokyo have led to the advance of a scientific method of establish the major pressures shaping their strategies.
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Additional resources for International Strategies of Japanese Banks: The European Perspective
Suzuki (1987, pp. 109-11) notes that there have been three fundamental changes in the character of these markets to which the growth can be attributed: firstly, the diversification of assets traded in them; secondly, the change of attitude underlying the use of the interbank market (from fund adjustment to wholesale banking investment and fund raising); and thirdly, the free interest rate formation, since, in 1979, the system was abolished under which the rate for all transactions had been set in advance.
However for the banks it was too easy a time; their consciousness of their position was greatly reduced43 and when the time of readjustment came in the 1970s difficulties arose. This new era arrived with the first oil shock, resulting in a marked slow-down in the growth of Japanese companies and accelerating procurement costs for raw materials as well as financial means. 5 per cent the effects of the second oil shock then pushed it under the 3 per cent mark, where it stayed. Not surprisingly, the growth in fund demand slowed down in parallel.
Since the official abolition of this system in April 1975 on anti-trust grounds the Bank of Japan and all private financial institutions have stuck to it on a 'voluntary' basis. 7 Towards the end of the decade a fundamental reform of this system came in sight: Japanese banks are planning to liberalize their shortterm prime lending rates by linking them to money market rates instead of the official discount rate. 8 At the same time an end would be made to the system of so-called 'compensatory balances', deposits by industrial borrowers in low-interest rate accounts of the lending institution - a system which was conceived by the banks during the high-growth period, when the monetary situation was tight, to adjust the level of returns to the level of risks involved in the lending transaction.
International Strategies of Japanese Banks: The European Perspective by J. Thorsten Duser